The Dutch traded with the Khoikhoi, the locals, out of necessity, but it was not a friendly relationship. Because of this, the Dutch faced a labor shortage, and consequently allowed nationals to settle and work as laborers. Soon, however, there were not only Dutch nationals, but also German and Scandanavian people who were followed by the French Huguenots. Most of these people were fleeing religious persecution in Europe.
After a free burgher (as the Dutch farmers were called) system was then developed by Cape Town founder Johan van Riebeeck and the Dutch East India Company, they started to import slaves from Madagascar and Indonesia. Colonization expanded into the land of the Khoikhoi, which led to many clashes. Dutch newcomers drove out the Khoikhoi and destroyed them with disease and war.
Burghers, enfranchised citizens of the South African Republic, explored the lands as well. These were the first of the Boers.
Apartheid institutionalized racial segregation, a parallel to the Jim Crow laws in the United States. It categorized people into three racial categories: white, black, Indian, or colored (mixed descent). The “homeland” administrations were established -- these alienated Africans from their own country. The Public Safety Act and Criminal Law Amendment Act were passed, allowing cruel punishment to be used on the people in a “state of emergency,” which, in some cases, was just a protest. Many were killed, and those who were tried, if not sentenced to death, were banished for life or imprisoned, Nelson Mandela among the latter.
See Works: South Africa/Apartheid for Tutu's involvement
Another advancement for South Africa in 2010 was South Africa becoming the first African nation to host FIFA’s World Cup, showing how the country has changed since Apartheid. The country entered this new century smoothly making a transition of power in government -- a government that represented the majority of the people.
In 2005, however, deputy president Jacob Zuma (held as Mbeki’s successor as president of the ANC and the country) was dismissed for charges of corruption, and the next year, was tried for charges of rape. He was acquitted of both rape and corruption in 2006. Nevertheless, Zuma remained popular in the ANC and was chosen over Mbeki as party president in 2007.
Desmond Tutu campaigned not only for human rights, but also for environmental rights and health problems. He especially supported the containment of tuberculosis and HIV.
Why did Archbishop Tutu catch our attention? This was because of his outstanding leadership. He was extremely vocal, and protested peacefully. He was not afraid to speak up for what he believed was right, and did not fear the opinions of people and groups in power. He even dared to criticize the United Nations for supporting Indonesia in conquering West Papua, for he considered this another act of oppression -- which he had fought so hard against in South Africa. Desmond Tutu proves that not all reforms must be violent, and through devotion to one’s cause, people will hear you.
~Clare Zhou, Jacquelyn Ho, and Linda Qin
1."Boer Wars." Newworldencycolpedia.org. New World Encyclopedia. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Boer_Wars.
2. Chokshi, Monal, Cale Carter, Deepak Gupta, Tove Martin, and Robert Allen. "The History of Apartheid in South Africa." Student Information. Stanford University. Web. 15 Apr. 2012. http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html.
3. "Colonization in South Africa." Country Facts and Information. 29 Mar. 2010. Web. 06 May 2012. http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/South-Africa/Colonization-in-South-Africa/4013.
4. Laing, Aislinn. "Archbishop Desmond Tutu Retires from Public Life." Telegraph (2010). Web. 6 May 2012. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/ southafrica/7904985/Archbishop-Desmond-Tutu-retires-from-public-life.html.
5. "Desmond Tutu." Famous People. Web. 08 May 2012. http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/desmond-tutu-75.php.
6. "Africa :: South Africa." The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 8 May 2012. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html.
7. "Recent History of South Africa." SomaliPress.com. 29 Dec. 2010. Web. 08 May 2012. http://www.somalipress.com/south-africa-overview/recent-history-south-africa-1126.html.
8. "Obama Presents 16 with Presidential Medal of Freedom." CNN. 12 Aug. 2009. Web. 14 May 2012. http://articles.cnn.com/2009-08-12/politics/medal.of.freedom_1_presidential-medal-breast-cancer-health-care?_s=PM:POLITICS.
9. A Long Night's Journey into Day. Dir. Deborah Hoffmann and Frances Reid. Perf. Mary Burton, Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela and Mongezi Manqina. Reid-Hoffmann Productions, 2001. Film.