Warsaw Pact, 1955
OF FRIENDSHIP, CO-OPERATION AND MUTUAL ASSISTANCE
Between the People's Republic of Albania, the People's Republic
of Bulgaria, the Hungarian People's Republic, the German Democratic
Republic, the Polish People's Republic, the Rumanian People's Republic,
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the Czechoslovak Republic,
May 1, 1955
their desire for the organisation of a system of collective security
in Europe, with the participation of all the European states, irrespective
of their social and state systems, which would make it possible
to combine their efforts in the interests of securing peace in Europe,
Taking into consideration at the same tirne the situation obtaining
in Europe as the result of ratification of the Paris agreements,
which provide for the formation of a new military grouping in the
shape of the "Western European Union" together with a
remilitarised Western Germany, and for the integration of Western
Germany in the North Atlantic bloc, which increases the threat of
another war and creates a menace to the national security of the
Convinced that, under these circumstances, the peaccloving states
of Europe should take the necessary measures for safeguarding their
security, and in the interests of maintaining peace in Europe,
Guided by the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter,
In the interests of further strengthening and promoting friendship,
co-opcration and mutual assistance, in accordance with the principles
of respect for the independence and sovereignty of states, and also
with the principle of noninterference in their internal affairs,
Have resolved to conclude this Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation
and Mutual Assistance, . . .
Article 1. The contracting parties undertake, in accordance
with the Charter of the United Nations Organisation, to refrain
in their international relations from the threat or use of force,
and to settle their international disputes by peaceful means so
as not to endanger international peace and security.
Article 2. The contracting parties declare their readiness
to take part, in the spirit of sincere co-operation, in all international
undertakings intended to safeguard international peace and security
and they shall use all their energies for the realisation of these
the contracting parties shall work for the adoption, in agreement
with other states desiring to co-operate in this matter, of effective
measures towards a general reduction of armaments and prohibition
of atomic, hydrogen and other weapons of mass destruction.
Article 3. The contracting parties shall take council among
themselves on all important international questions relating to
their common interests, guided by the interests of strengthening
international peace and security.
shall take council among themselves immediately, whenever, in the
opinion of any of them, there has arisen the threat of an armed
attack on one or several states that are signatories of the treaty,
in the interests of organising their joint defence and of upholding
peace and security.
Article 4. In the event of an armed attack in Europe on
one or several states that are signatories of the treaty by any
state or group of states, each state that is a party to this treaty
shall, in the exercise of the right to individual or collective
self-defence in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the
United Nations Organisation, render the state or states so attacked
immediate assistance, individually and in agreement with other states
that are parties to this treaty, by all the means it may consider
necessary, including the use of armed force. The states that are
parties to this treaty shall immediately take council among themselves
concerning the necessary joint measures to be adopted for the purpose
of restoring and upholding international peace and security.
accordance with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations
Organisation, the Security Council shall be advised of the measures
taken on the basis of the present article. These measures shall
be stopped as soon as the Security Council has taken the necessary
measures for restoring and upholding international peace and security-.
Article 5. The contracting parties have agreed on the establishment
of a joint command for their armed forces, which shall be placed,
by agreement among these parties, under this command, which shall
function on the basis of jointly defined principles. They shall
also take other concerted measures necessary for strengthening their
defence capacity, in order to safeguard the peaceful labour of their
peoples, to guarantee the inviolability of their frontiers and territories
and to provide safeguards against possible aggression.
Article 6. For the purpose of holding the consultations
provided for in the present treaty among the states that are parties
to the treaty, and for the purpose of considering problems arising
in connection with the implementation of this treaty, a political
consultative committee shall be formed in which each state that
is a party to this treaty shall be represented by a member of the
government, or any other specially appointed representative.
The committee may, form the auxiliary organs for which the need
7. The contracting parties undertake not to participate in
any coalitions and alliances, and not to conclude any agreements
the purposes of which would be at variance with those of the present
contracting parties declare that their obligations under existing
international treaties are not at variance with the provisions of
8. The contracting parties declare that they will act in the
spirit of friendship and co-operation with the object of furthering
the development of, and strengthening the economic and cultural
relations between them, adliering to the principles of mutual respect
for their independence and sovereignty, and of non-interference
in their internal affairs.
Article 9. The present treaty is open to be acceded to by other
states-irrespective of their social and state systems-which may
express their readiness to assist, through participation in the
present treaty, in combining the efforts of the peaccloving states
for the purpose of safeguarding the peace and security, of nations.
This act of acceding to the treaty shall become effective, with
the consent of the states that are parties to this treaty, after
the instrument of accedence has been deposited with the government
of the Polish People's Republic.
Article 10. The present treaty is subject to ratification,
and the instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the
government of the Polish People's Republic.
treaty shall take effect on the date on which the last ratification
instrument is deposited. The government of the Polish People's Republic
shall advise the other states that are parties to the treaty of
each ratification instrument deposited with it.
11. The present treaty shall remain in force for 20 years.
For the contracting parties which will not have submitted to the
government of the Polish People's Republic a statement denouncing
the treaty a year before the expiration of its term, it shall remain
in force throughout the following ten years.
the event of the organisation of a system of collective security
in Europe and the conclusion of a general European treaty of collective
security to that end, which the contracting parties shall unceasingly
seek to bring about, the present treaty shall cease to be effective
on the date the general European treaty comes into force.
in Warsaw, on May 1, 1955, in one copy each in the Russian, Polish,
Czech, and German languages, all the texts being equally authentic.
Certified copies of the present treaty shall be transmitted by the
government of the Polish People's Republic to all the parties to