Sun Yat Sen
Sun Yat Sen, the Father of the Chinese Revolution, lived most of his political life in bitter disappontment. He struggled for 20 years trying to bring strenth and unity to China through 10 failed revolutions. He finally established a Chinese Republic in 1911. However, in 1913, he was forced out of the Presidency and the Republic crumbled. Sun Yat Sen was born to peasant farmers in Cuiheng village, Xiangshen county, Guangdong on November 12, 1866. At age 13, he was sent to Hawaii to join his older brother, Sun Dezheng. There he learned to speak English and enrolled in Oahu College, but in 1883, at the age of 18 his brother, Sun Dezheng, sent Sun back to China, afraid that his younger brother would convert to Christianity. That same year, Sun left Cuiheng to study in Hong Kong. There, he studied and graduated from the Hong Kong School of Medicine of Chinese. While studying in Hong Kong, he was baptized as a Christian and agreed to an arranged marriage to Lu Muzhen.
By 1884, the Qing dynasty was collapsing. Sun returned to Hawaii to plan a revolution and orgainzed the Revive China Society. The attempt in 1885 failed and Sun was banned from Hong Kong. He went to Japan until he was banned there, too. Then he traveled around South East Asia, Europe, and North America trying to gather funds for other revolutions. These subsequent revolutions failed, due to bad planning and inadequate weapons.
By 1905, Sun had begun to develop his ideology, which became the basis for his Three Principles of the People. Finally, in 1911, Sun Yat Sen achieved a success in the Xinhai Revolution. On January 1, 1912, Sun was elected President of the New Republic. He was forced out in 1913, in favor of military ruler Yuan Shikai. In 1915 he married his second wife Song Qingling. He spent his last years building up China's military strength and political base of operations and expounding his Three Principles of the People. He died of liver cancer in Beijing on March 12, 1925.
Sun Yat Sen's Three Principles of the People