|Background on NAACP||Thurgood Marshall & the FBI||Military Desegregation|
|Chambers v. Florida(1940)||Smith v. Allwright(1943)||Shelley v. Kraemer(1947)||Sipuel v. Univ. of Oklahoma(1948)||Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)|
Background on the NAACP
The NAACP describes their mission on their website http://www.naacp.org as, “The NAACP works at the national, regional, and local level to secure civil rights through advocacy for supportive legislation and by the implementation of our Strategic Initiatives. The NAACP also stands poised to defend civil rights wherever and whenever they are threatened.”
Most of its members are African Americans, but there are some Caucasian members. After a lynching of two blacks in the Springfield, Ill. many white political activists called a conference to contemplate options for the advancement of African Americans in political and social standings. It established the NAACP in 1910 with seven white and one black leader. W.E.B DuBois was the one black chairperson, which was surprising since he wanted immediate granting of rights, while the “fashionable” or common thought was gradualism. By 1915 it was able to organize a partially successful boycott against a motion picture that distorted the view of African Americans in the Reconstruction era. Its main project, however, was the topic of lynching. In 1911 there were 63 black lynchings. By the 1950’s there were almost none. Before Thurgood Marshall’s time with it, the NAACP’s focus on education was a campaign to receive truly similar schools for African Americans as the Caucasian students had under the philosophy of “separate but equal.” However, a few years after Marshall joined the Baltimore branch of the NAACP, it began a disparate organization, the Legal Defense and Education Fund, which was under the direction of Thurgood Marshall until he became a Circuit court justice. This campaign was not to obtain equal facilities for African American students, but to get them enrolled in white universities. At first in Legal Defense and Education Fund, he was the only manager, lawyer, aide, or secretary employed. But as this fund became more successful, his place was more and more in the court room defending a plaintiff than on the street looking for one. This higher profile post would get him recognized by the government for later employments.