As the MFDP formed into a statewide organization capable of empowering new voters, Moses became more and more disillusioned with the lack of progress. The MFDP hoped to be able to gain voting seats as delegates at the 1964 Atlantic City Democratic National Convention. They sought to replace the "regular" Democratic representatives, but President Johnson was determined to hold onto his southern political support, and to do this he would need to prevent the MFDP from gaining any power. After numerous heart-stopping speeches and accounts made by MFDP delegates including Fannie Lou Hamer, The Democratic Party and all the institutions involved in it seemed unprepared to change the current political imbalance. They were convinced to not allow political power to reach the Black and poor. President Johnson and the Credentials Committee decided to offer the MFDP two seats to make vocal arguments only, without being able to vote at the convention. The MFDP refused to accept this offer, because it was not what they wanted. This act greatly disappointed Bob Moses, and he began to consider returning to teaching.

As the opportunity presented itself, Moses moved to Tanzania to teach math in public schools with his wife, Janet. The two taught at Same Secondary School, and Moses recalls that it was there that for the first time he "saw what it meant for a school system to be dedicated to its children." In Tanzania, Moses' was able to apply the same lessons of civil rights and equality that he valued so highly during his work in Mississippi. Eventually, he and his wife returned to America in order to raise his children, but this would not prevent Moses from pursuing his goal of bringing African-Americans to political and economic equality in America. His work in Tanzania inspired Moses and his wife to start, which became the roots of the Algebra Project.