Background: The Civil Rights Movement
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Other attacks were made on other civil rights workers. May 1963 police turned fire hoses and attack dogs on protestors. On September 15, 1963 four young children were killed in the bombing of an African American church in Birmingham. President John F. Kennedy sent federal troops to protect civil rights workers.

President Kennedy gave a speech on June 11, 1963 on civil rights. 250 000 blacks marched to Washington in August. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial. November that year, President Kennedy was assassinated and his place was taken by Lyndon B. Johnson. In July 1964 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act. The act "barred states from using different voting standards for blacks and whites". It made discrimination illegal in public places. The federal government was given the power to integrate schools and protect voting rights. It banned job discrimination on account of race, sex, or religion. Later the 24th Amendment outlawed poll taxes.

A march was planned in 1965 to get the attention on the issue of a voting law. They planned to walk from Selma to Montgomery. March 7, marches crossing a bridge in Selma were attacked by state troopers on horses. Martin Luther King Jr. led another march two days later but were stopped and ordered to go no further. Hundreds were arrested in these marches. They marched in Marion and Selma to the courthouses to try to register to vote, but were turned away by the police. On March 15, 1965 President Lyndon B. Johnson introduced the Voting rights Act. Congress passed the act. It ended rules that southern states used to keep African Americans from voting.

By 1965 the civil rights movement won many new legislation protecting the rights of African American citizens. The federal government had more responsibility in the monitoring of schools, voting, and racially motivated crimes. The movement brought new pride and hope to African Americans, "Black Power" also began. Malcolm X became their spokes person for black power. The Black Muslims were a black supremacy group. Malcolm X urged blacks to defend themselves against whites. He "renounced violence and urged blacks to hate whites". But after he took a trip to Mecca he no longer held his view of black supremacy. He pictured a world where all races could live in peace. February 21, 1965 he was assassinated by Black Muslims.


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