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  #1  
Old 01-02-2002, 00:58
freemanjud freemanjud is offline
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Life between 1900-1914 (due Friday, January 4)

Happy new year...and let's see if we can pick up where we left off on these boards. The momentum we had going this fall was terrific and now that many of you are second term seniors, let's prove the pundits wrong and show folks what you really do when you are working for yourselves!

Today we learned that the world looked very different between 1900 and 1914 than it does today. It's important for you to construct an image of that time in your mind in order to understand the history we are about to study. Just the notion of places (so few independent countries in Africa, for example) or the difficulty of communication (how long news took to travel from Europe to the United States) or the width of a woman's dress at its widest point--all are indications of a very different time and place. But people were human beings then and we are human beings today. So much has changed and much has stayed the same.

It's important that you fill out the picture of life at the turn of the century on this planet. So here's the challenge. I'm going to begin the question and you complete it. Ready?

Between 1900 and 1914, how did folks ____________________?

Now, this is meant to be a serious question. So pose a serious question, do some digging, and find the answer. Post the question in the "subject" line and then post the answer in the message space as you reply to this post.

IMPORTANT NOTE: This post is due by the time you meet in class tomorrow. I'm going to ask you what you posted, so come prepared!
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Old 01-03-2002, 16:17
speckles speckles is offline
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What kinds of jobs did women have?

Only 19% of women had jobs, most of them working in factories. By 1900, more than one million women worked in factories, primarily in textile mills and clothing factories. They worked long hours, often 15 hours a day, in poor conditions and for very little pay. They could not fight for better conditions because many unions did not allow women to join. Women also worked in domestic services or held teaching positions. Only about 5% were secretaries, clerks, or salespersons. The early 1900s was when women began to work more. Middle-class women joined the work force, primarily as teachers and nurses (teachers, however, were required to quit when they got married). They also worked as typists or telephone and telegraph operators. Half the female workers were under 25 years old, and 7 out of 10 were single. They were paid less than men. Very few women could get a higher education to get better jobs. In the year 1900, only 23 women were given PhDs, as opposed to 512,000 in 1998.

These days, women can have any job they want. 60% of all women are employed, representing 47% of the work force. 68% of them are married. They may still be working in factories, but they also work in business, politics, sciences, etc.

Last edited by speckles; 01-03-2002 at 16:48.
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Old 01-03-2002, 18:27
iLaDoV54 iLaDoV54 is offline
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What kind of Transportation did people have?

The railroad was still fairly new in the early 1900's, and was probably the main source for the transportation of goods. But traveling by railroad was definitely restricted to the very wealthy. Horse drawn carriages were also very popular. They were used by farmers, doctors, firemen, etc. In Canada, the bicycle became a popular way to get around as well, apparently not so much as in the states. Orville and Wilbur Wright invented the first airplane around 1902-1903. This obviously wouldn't become a main source for traveling until much later, but it was a big deal nevertheless. The invention that probably had the biggest impact on transportation of the time was the invention of the automobile in 1909, by Henry Ford.The original price was 825 dollars, which was too expensive.(as we know, the average pay yearly was less than that) Eventually, Ford was able to lower the production cost so he could lower the price to 550 bucks in 1913, $440 in 1915, and $290 in 1924.(just thought i'd give u an idea)
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Old 01-03-2002, 18:47
Golden Hecate Golden Hecate is offline
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What was education like

In the 1900s, education as we now know it started. Teacher made about $325 per annum and most of the elementary ones were female, more men as you got higher up. The first real elementary school was founded by John Dewey in Chicago As we know, high Schools like English and Latin already existed and they became popular around the 1880s and junior high schools were a few year after.
Teachers became educated professionals this time, not just people who may have read a few books and their pay increased a bit. Also, schools began to have more of a standardized outlook and testing became VERY popular.
Philanthopists such Rockefeller and others encouraged the education of African Americans, but the South still provided little to no schooling for the descendant of slaves and the North was just a bit better.

Last edited by Golden Hecate; 01-03-2002 at 18:55.
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Old 01-03-2002, 18:59
VENUS VENUS is offline
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Between 1900-1914 what was a form of entertainment?

This probably doesn't sound like it goes with the question that great but when I began to look up entertainment a site came up which was full of literature and painting names of this period. And it described how children's literature followed along with the technological advances such as cars and planes which were being introduced into the stories. And it also gave some information how boys began to change their dress from wearing dresses into knickers and that a major kind of entertainment that began to grow for girls was having parties as clothing became more sophisticated.


http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/ENGL/courses/engl
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  #6  
Old 01-03-2002, 19:01
seabreeze seabreeze is offline
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What was women's fashion between 1900 and 1914?

wait...I don't have an answer yet, but I am posting before anybody can take mine because I had a question and answer already but it was already posted...ahhh
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Old 01-03-2002, 19:22
seabreeze seabreeze is offline
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What was womens fashion like between 1900 and 1914?

At this time, women's skirts became shorter, in part to make it easier to step into automobiles and trolleys. A popular skirt was the "hobble skirt" which had a slit to the knee, making walking easier. Women also liked to wear big hats. Young ladies had "bedjackets" which were worn in the morning while eating breakfast or doing their hair. Middle class women copied styles from fashion magazines, either hiring someone to make replicas or sewing the clothes their own. At the time of around 1908, women started rejecting the corset and European style for more comfortable clothes such as tailored skirts and blouses. Women based their styles on the Gibson Girl, a creation of American artist, Charles Gibson.
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Old 01-03-2002, 19:40
ciela4 ciela4 is offline
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between 1900 and 1914, how strict was immigration entrance into the US?

wooh, polishing up on US History! The immigration flow into the United States reached its peak in the years between 1900 and 1910, with approximately 1 million people entering the country in each year in that decade. Prior to the Civil War, most immigrants hailed from western Europe and the British Isles while the majority shifted after the war to people of southern and eastern European descent, as well as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean people who largely settled on the West Coast. It wasn't until towards the end of WWI that the US decided to institute the Naturalization acts, the biased literacy tests (1921 under Woodrow Wilson), and quotas that limited the numbers of immigrants who could enter the US. These limitations were passed by the older American generation of largely Western European descent who felt threatened by this influx of diverse people. But again, at the turn of the 20th century, American doors were pretty much wide open to immigrants.

An interesting college factoid: You know how on most college applications you are asked if you had a relative attend the university as well? the whole "alumni preference" thing? This began in the early 1900s to curtail the sons (no daughters here) of Jewish and Catholic immigrants from entering elite universities. This practice has endured at the Ivy leagues and other prestigious universities because of how highly effective a fundraising tool it is- i guess that people would be much more willing to donate to their alma mater if their children attend the school as well. In 1988, 280 of 1602 Harvard freshmen had fathers who attended the school.
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Old 01-03-2002, 20:05
starz18 starz18 is offline
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Women's participation in sports from 1900-1914

Well, believe it or not, though women had enough trouble trying to gain their rights to vote and be equal to men - they were also struggling to be able to be equal to men and be able to play .. sports. How rejected women must have felt back then huh?! Well, from 1900-1920, physical education instructors strongly opposed competition among women in sports, for they felt it would only make women "less feminine." Well, I play a sport and I don't really think it makes me less feminine. What went through people's minds back then is beyond me. Anyway, poor women, right? Well, in 1848 the first women's rights convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York. This was a convention to set equal rights between men and women. Slow but sure start... Then, in 1900, women were first allowed to participate in the modern Olympic Games - which were being held in France. Look at that! They made progress! They were only allowed however, to play in 4 different sports ... tennis, golf, croquet, and ballooning. The first woman to win an olympic gold medal was Maragaret Abbott. Go Margaret! And what I found quiet interesting was that the national anthem for baseball ... you know .. "Take me out to the ball game..." is actually written about a young girl's love for the game. That was in 1908. Women have really come a long way since then. They are allowed to participate in almost every sport ... there are professional women's basketball leagues, wrestling, boxing, hockey - only thing we still have to work on is the football leagues ... but we still have time. But it's amazing to see how women were treated back then and to think how they are treated today. There still may be a little inferiority when it comes to being compared to men sports-wise - but I congratulate the women back then and am thankful to be represented by such powerful and determined people!
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  #10  
Old 01-03-2002, 20:08
starz18 starz18 is offline
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I forgot to add this in...

Here is a timeline of women's progress in sports that i found interesting ...
http://www.northnet.org/stlawrenceaauw/timelne2.htm
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  #11  
Old 01-03-2002, 20:09
thalia thalia is offline
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What was theatre like between 1900 and 1914?

calling dibbs on a question while I'm researching. This seems kind of cheap, but I really want to do this question and I don't want someone to steal it while I'm researching.
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  #12  
Old 01-03-2002, 20:18
Fatty Fatty is offline
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Been 1900 and 1914, how did folks survive on an average salary of $756.63 a year.

Today I think most families sped more than $756 a mont nevermind a year. How could they do this back in 1900. Well things were very different. The cost of living was much cheaper. People didnt spend a lot of money to travel to the islands or to other countries. They didnt have many of the expenses we have today such as telephone bills, plumbing bills, expensive college tuitions, cell phone bills, computers, electric bills, etc. If a family today had to survive on $756 a year they would not be considered middle class they would probably be lower class. The cost of food was much cheaper back in 1900. As we learned in class today milk cost $.05 a gallon, today it costs about $3 a gallon. Eggs cost $.16 a dozen, today about $3, flour, butter and most other food products have increased in price. Even though the amount that people are paid nowadays has increased so has the amount of bills we hve to pay. The cost of living today is much more expensive today than it wasback in 1900. Back then people didnt have indoor plumbing, only 1 in 7 houses had it. So today we have to pay for plumbing bills. Electricity was not like it is today. Houses didnt have a million different lihts in each room. Televisions weren't around yet and neither were computers. So there goes s few more of the costs that we have to pay today that they didnt have to pay back then.
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Old 01-03-2002, 20:48
jadewarrior jadewarrior is offline
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What were the most popular musical acts though 1914 and what does that say about...

the culture and society of those times?

not like anybody would take this, but i'm just making sure
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Old 01-03-2002, 20:56
thalia thalia is offline
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Theatre between 1900 and 1914

Ok, it is remarkably hard to find information on this period. All these websites seem to either want to tell me about Victorian Drama of the 1880's or so or post-World War I drama. But I have some good information about specifically that period, for example:
- A really influencial playwright of the time was George Bernard Shaw. He wrote his most famous play Pygmalion in 1913. This play served as the direstion foundation for the popular musical My Fair Lady and uses a story of the gentrification of a poor English flower girll to critize the rigid class system in England, where, this play correctly satrized, your accent alone could confine you to be a guttersnipe for life. Shaw specialized in entertaing, witty plays that held within them an over-all critism of English society. Both he and Oscar Wilde (one of the most humourous playwrights of all time) introduced brilliant comic satire into theatre at the turn of the century. Unfortunalty, Wilde passed away in 1900, leaving Shaw to carry on the tradition into the 20th century where it has flourished.
-Also extremely popular around the turn of the century were Variety Shows which were at this point just beginning to evolve into Vaudville, a theatrical period most commonly associated with the early 1920's. In this these shows, for a base fee you would go in and see a variety of performances ranging from burlesque dancers to magicians to music hall singers. Basically you name it, and someone, somewhere was performing it. Think Amazing Strong Men. think Houdini. think guady costumes and even gaudier makeup.
These 2 pieces can give you a general idea about early 20th century theatre.
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Old 01-03-2002, 20:59
BoNBoNSiTa113 BoNBoNSiTa113 is offline
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What people thought of dreams during 1900-1914...

Dreaming is generally defined as imaginal, sensory, motor, and thought processes occurring during sleep. Neither sleep nor dreaming, however, can be precisely defined. What is called dreaming depends on how it is measured and in which of the four basic stages of sleep it occurs. Dreaming takes place in varying degrees in all stages of sleep. Dreams are not necessarily visual imagery; congenitally blind people dream in auditory and sensory-motor modes. One difference between waking and dreaming consciousness is that the latter tends to be an internal hallucinatorylike experience disconnected from the external world.

In 1900, Sigmund Freud ushered in the modern age of dream research in his monumentally original book "The Interpretation of Dreams". According to Freud, dreams are disguised thoughts that arise from the unconscious mind. He developed an elaborate theory of dreaming and how the mind works while asleep. Carl Jung, an early student of Freud, broke with his teacher in insisting that the surface content of dreams is the meaning and that deep symbolic interpretation has little importance.

Traditional psychoanalytic theory states that all human beings are born with instinctual drives that are constantly active even though a person is usually not conscious of thus being driven. Two drives one for sexual pleasure, called libido, the other called aggression motivate and propel most behavior. In the infant the libido first manifests itself by making sucking an activity with pleasurable sensations in the mouth. Later similar pleasures are experienced in the anus during bowel movements, and finally these erotically tinged pleasures are experienced when the sexual organ is manipulated. Thus psychosexual development progresses from the oral through the anal to the phallic stage. (Phallic, in psychoanalytic theory, refers to both male and female sexual organs.)

During the height of the phallic phase, about ages three to six, these libidinal drives focus on the parent of the opposite sex and lend an erotic cast to the relation between mother and son or between father and daughter, the so called Oedipus complex. However, most societies strongly disapprove of these sexual interests of children. A taboo on incest rules universally. Parents, therefore, influence children to push such pleasurable sensations and thoughts out of their conscious minds into the unconscious by a process called repression. In this way the mind comes to consist of three parts: (1) an executive part, the ego, mostly conscious and comprising all the ordinary thoughts and functions needed to direct a person in his or her daily behavior; (2) the id, mostly unconscious and containing all the instincts and everything that was repressed into it; and (3) the superego, the conscience that harbors the values, ideals, and prohibitions that set the guidelines for the ego and that punishes through the imposition of guilt feelings.

Strong boundaries between the three parts keep the ego fairly free from disturbing thoughts and wishes in the id, thereby guaranteeing efficient functioning and socially acceptable behavior. During sleep the boundaries weaken; disturbing wishes may slip into the ego from the id, and warnings may come over from the superego. The results are intrapsychic conflicts, often manifested in dreams, sometimes even in frightening nightmares. Freud elucidated this concept in his first major work, The Interpretation of Dreams (1900; Eng. trans., 1913). Something very similar to the weakening of boundaries during sleep sometimes happens during ordinary daytime activities when some impulse from the id manages to cross the repression barrier to invade the ego and cause faulty actions such as slips of the tongue. Psychoneurotic symptoms occur if psychologically hurtful experiences during childhood have left the repression too weak or have distorted the ego, or if overstimulation has left the id wishes too strong, or if the delicate balance between ego, id, and superego has been upset by injury or other events. Any kind of psychic trauma may lead to the ego becoming an arena of intrapsychic conflict between the intruding id, the threatening superego, and the powerful influences emanating from the surrounding environment. Furthermore, the damage done to the basic psychological structures by traumatic experiences leaves those structures weakened and with defective functioning.

Such conflicts and defects can cause intense anxiety and severe depression. In order to keep functioning effectively, the ego attempts to maintain control by achieving some sort of compromise between the contending forces. Often such compromises appear in the form of inhibitions or compulsions that affect behavior. Abnormal behavior and the anxiety, depressions, and phobias that go with them are called psychoneurotic symptoms in psychoanalytic theory. Neurotic character is the phrase used to designate a consistent pattern of neurotic behavior. When the damage abnormally distorts self-esteem, the resulting disturbance is called a narcissistic personality disorder, or a disorder of the self.

Dreams are constanly being researched and theories about them tested and improved. I was surprised with how much they knew during the year 1900, it actually does not seem like we have come up with many new theories since and we are now in the year 2002. I guess the one thing we have been able to elaborate on is how to interpret these dreams with a better understanding that dreams are no literal, they are often the complete opposite of what someone with littlle knowlede about dreams would expect...
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Old 01-03-2002, 21:26
BlueLightAlways BlueLightAlways is offline
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What was Africa and why was it mapped out like a jig-saw puzzle??

Before 1850, Africa was known as the Dark Continent, because it was virtually unexplored and no one had any idea of what was in it's center. Because of the Industrial Revolution, doctors had found cures for some diseases, including the deadly Malaria, which was found an antidote, quinine, through the scientific method. New Imperialism swept through Europe. The motives for conquering other lands were no longer Gold, Glory, and God; but raw materials and an area market, which would buy back the finished products. Africa had the raw materials but the market could not afford to buy back the finished products. So back to Gold, Glory, and God; Glory – Dr. Livingston explored into Africa to do medical research and gain fame. Social Darwinism also played a role by motivating big countries to start colonies to prove that they were the superb race or encouraging nationalism ( my country is the best). God – most colonists thought that they were blessing the African tribes with the teachings of Christianity.
The scramble for Africa began when the King of Belgium sent explorers up the Congo River, setting off all of Europe. Fights broke out over possession of African territory, which was supposed to be solved by the Berlin Conference (1884 –1885). This conference resolved that if a country wants land, it needs to effectively occupy the territory, and send an army to defend it. France got most of the northwestern part of Africa, except for Liberia which was under the Monroe Act that basically said hands off, because the country was made up of slaves sent back from the U.S.A. Belgium took most of the middle, hence the Belgium Congo. Italy took the top middle of Africa and England claimed most of the eastern side, except for present-day Ethiopia, which fought France for it’s independence. South Africa was taken by Portugal but then conquered by the Dutch. There were some uprisings like the Zulu’s and Hottentot’s against the Dutch but none were successful.
I noticed that none of the natives that actually occupied the conquered lands were consulted and their lands were divided up and the tribes were left to deal with this, which is causing huge problems today in Africa. Because of this mad scramble for colonies in Africa, it looks like a jug-saw puzzle in the 1900’s.
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Old 01-03-2002, 21:27
that girl that girl is offline
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was life like for a child?

while i was taking my sweet time on writing about music jade warrior claimed it! s im throwing this one out there... dibs on the hot toys and children's games of 1900-1914!
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Old 01-03-2002, 21:32
KingGod01 KingGod01 is offline
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Civil Rights between 1900-1914

The Niagara Movement, the forerunner of the NAACP, was formed in 1905 by a group of African-American intellectuals. The movement was formed by W.E.B. Dubois, John Hope and Monroe Trotter in Michigan in an effort to renounce the Booker T. Washington's speech from ten years earlier. This association focused on eliminating the mistreatment of African-Americans and segregation. It also attempted to gain African-American sufferage. Washington had said that African-Americans should accept a policy of accomodation in his famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech. W.E.B. Dubois is quoted as saying "We want full manhood suffrage and we want it now.... We are men! We want to be treated as men. And we shall win." This quotation became the manifesto for the movement which would gain widespread support and accomplish scattered civil rights victories at the local level until it split into to factions in 1809. In 1810 the NAACP became the foremost organization for civil rights in the U.S. The NAACP was also begun by Dubois and it still exists and has existed since 1910 as the most powerful civil rights association in the U.S.
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Old 01-03-2002, 21:43
Lilax18 Lilax18 is offline
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Between 1900 and 1914, how did folks spend their free time?

During these years many families spent their leisure time together. They used to have picnics or go for long sunday drives in either their horse and carriage, or if they were likely, in their new car. Another favorite thing to do was to play baseball. At night when families were together they had sing alongs, while one family member played the piano. Bascially this was a time when families spent a great deal of their time together.
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Old 01-03-2002, 21:55
Tia544 Tia544 is offline
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What was candy like during the 1900s? Yummy!

I know that everyone likes candy so i thought it would be interesting to research on candy in the 1900s and see how "popular" it was.

Candy is the generic term for confections with a
boiled and crystallized sugar base. Also called sweets
(particularly in Britain), candy may contain nutmeats,
fillings, colors, and flavors and is frequently
chocolate coated.

The story of candy is the story of sugar. Indeed the
term candy is derived from the Persian word qand,
meaning sugar. From its ancient origin in the Far
East, the use of cane sugar gradually spread west,
until by 1600 sugar confectionery was an established
art in Europe. The products included molded hard
candies, stick candies, dragees (nuts in a sugar
shell), and sugar paste, a sugar dough confection.

Candy Industry

The early 19th century marked the beginnings of
large-scale candymaking, especially in England. The
U.S. industry grew in the mid-1800s, when mass
production became feasible. By 1900, 1,000 U.S. firms
made $60 million worth of sweets, mostly penny candy
for children. In 1920, 3,000 completely mechanized
companies sold $500 million worth of candy, much of it
in the form of the newly introduced candy bars.

Today more than 2,000 different kinds of candy are
made in the United States, including all-sugar types
like hard candy, stick candy, and creams; types made
with 95 percent sugar, such as pectin jellies,
marshmallows, and nougats; and types made with less
than 50 percent sugar, such as fudge, caramel, starch
jellies, gums, and licorice. These candies can include
every kind of nut, fruit, dairy, or egg product.

Candy Production

Today's highly mechanized plants are equipped with
continuous cookers, crystallizers, forming machines,
chocolate enrobers, and cooling tunnels, but the basic
candymaking process is simply the boiling of sugar.

A mixture of 80 parts sugar and 20 parts corn syrup is
dissolved in a slight excess of water and boiled. When
boiling, the composition of sugar and water is fixed,
and the hot solution contains more sugar than it can
hold at a lower temperature; on cooling, the excess
sugar crystallizes. By choosing a temperatureÑfrom
113.3¡ C (236¡ F) for fondant creams to over 148¡ C
(300¡ F) for toffeesÑand the manner in which the sugar
mixture is crystallized (or in some products kept from
crystallizing by the addition of acid or invert
sugars), the confectioner can make the whole spectrum
of all-sugar candies.

To the basic sugar fondant recipe, the confectioner
adds other ingredients: whipped egg whites to make
marshmallows and nougat; fat and milk solids for
fudges, toffees, and caramels; cooked starches or gums
for jellies; and chocolate to flavor and cover the
delicate centers.

Per-capita candy consumption in the United States
hovers around 9 kg (20 lb) annually. During the 1980s
consumption rose by almost one pound per capita. Well
over half of American candies contain chocolate.
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